top of page

book two photos

Part Two: Chapters 18-24


An Inka-style unku for sale in Ayacucho, and an Inka mannequin in Cusco.

unku 08 - Santa Ana (23).JPG
unku 1 Qosqo (375).jpg

Warmikuna show off their walikuna in Cusco.

1 Qosqo (52).JPG

Wali styles vary from town to town. These women are from Yanque, Colca Canyon.

26 - Yanque (103)_edited.jpg

Chapter 19

Áspero, an archaeological site that was part of the ancient Caral culture. Artist's renderings of fishing scenes and the various usnus.


A sign at Aspero shows the remains of an usnu and an artist's recreation of what an usnu might have looked like 5,000 years ago.



Caral, the oldest civilization in the Americas. Their usnus were made of adobe. Note that even at this early stage there was trade between the coast and the rainforest. The remains of parrots and monkeys have been found at Caral.


A maqana in a museum in Colca Canyon, Arequipa.

maqana 26 - Yanque (167)_edited.jpg


Sechín, an ancient culture whose ruins can be found outside the city of Casma in the Department of Ancash. The waka of Sechín Cerro shows gruesome images of body parts and defeated warriors. These images were probably made to scare enemies.


In downtown Casma, an artist's imaginings of the violent life of the ancient Sechín.



The Chavín culture of the central Andes was very influential. Archaeologists refer to three great "horizons" in Peruvian prehistory wherein a culture extended influence far beyond its own region. The first horizon is Chavín; the second is Wari; and the third is Inka. Below, a model of the Chavín waka at the UNCP Museo de la Cultura del Perú.

chavin- 30 - Museo UNCP (27).JPG

Sculptures removed from the walls of Chavín are on display at the Museo Larco in Lima.

chavin heads Larco 2013 (18).JPG

A replica of the Chavín Lanzón at the Parque de las Leyendas, a zoo in Lima.


Wachuma was used in ceremonies at Chavín de Huántar to induce visions.

Below left, wachuma for sale at the San Pedro market in Cusco.

Right, an advertisement for a wachuma experience in Urubamba.


A lliklla can be a large shawl or a smaller cloth used to carry smaller things.

llikla 0 Qosqo b (13).jpg

An Inka qero made of wood. Qeros were also made of gold, but they are rare, since most were plundered by the Spanish.


A Paracas funerary mask at the National Museum of the American Indian, New York City.

A fragment of Paracas weaving at the Brooklyn Museum, showing the winged creatures so common in their culture. Paracas weaving was the finest ever found in the ancient Americas. 


Saqrakuna on display in Puno. This elaborate style of saqra is very common in Puno and Bolivia.  


Statues in Paucartambo representing the various dances practiced there, including the saqra.


A Nasca ceremonial drinking vessel at the Brooklyn Museum. Nasca art is quite similar to Paracas art, showing similar motifs of winged creatures, trophy heads, and uchu.


A Nasca vessel representing a fish, another common motif of the culture.

Chayllan chay.

bottom of page